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Some researchers think bacteria might also help mitigate the dye problem. Innovators including Cecilia Raspanti, co-founder of TextileLab Amsterdam ; Laura Luchtman, owner of textile and design studio Kukka ; and Natsai Audrey Chieza, founder of biodesign lab and creative research agency Faber Futures are using naturally pigmented bacteria to dye natural and bioengineered textiles. Luchtman says her process involves autoclaving a textile to prevent contamination, then pouring a liquid medium filled with bacterial nutrients over the textile in a container. Next she exposes the soaked textile to bacteria and leaves it in a climate-controlled chamber for three days. Finally she sterilizes the textile again, rinses it with a gentle laundry detergent to wash out the smell of the bacterial medium, then lets it dry. Bacterial dyes can be applied in a variety of colors and patterns, are nontoxic and require at least 20 percent less water, Chieza says. But significant challenges remain in using such techniques to replace both textiles woven with nonbiodgradable human-made fibers and dyes made from problematic chemicals. Producing bioengineered materials durable enough to stand up to normal wear and tear is a major hurdle, Schiros says. She has tried to overcome this by treating some of her textiles with indigenous preserving techniquessuch as tanning with smoke instead of chemicalswhich she says lend her bio-leather strength and water resistance. These ecologically benign textiles are so far limited mostly to the realms of the laboratory, science competitions and high-fashion runways. But researchers who promote them say it is just a matter of time before such innovations are rolled out in some form for consumer markets.
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